HYPERTENSION- A general guide Hypertension - also known as high blood pressure , is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure typically does not cause symptoms except a feeling of heavy head or pain in nose of neck or sometimes by nosebleed or shortness of breath Long-term high blood pressure, is a major risk factor for - coronary artery disease, - stroke, - heart failure, - atrial fibrillation, - peripheral vascular disease, - vision loss, - chronic kidney disease, and - dementia. TYPES OF HYPERTENSION 1. Primary 2. Secondary 3. Malignant 4. Transient PRIMARY HYPERTENSION About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to - nonspecific lifestyle & - genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use. SECONDARY HYPERTENSION The remaining 5–10% have high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause: - chronic kidney disease, - narrowing of the kidney arteries, - an endocrine disorder, - Obstructive sleep apnea - Adrenal gland tumors - Thyroid problems - the use of birth control pills NOTE: Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure.